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After a meta-analysis of 60 controlled feeding studies, researchers found that with every 1% isoenergetic replacement of carbohydrate with each category of fatty acid (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated), there was a decrease in triglyceride levels. More specifically, for every 1% isoenergetic replacement with saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat, there was a reduction in triglycerides by 1.9 mg/dL, 1.7 mg/dL, and 2.3 mg/dL, respectively.

It doesn’t matter if it is a carbohydrate from table sugar or whole food. If you replace those carbs with the same energetic equivalent of fat, then you will see a decrease in triglyceride levels. The results may be even better for people with type 2 diabetes — a condition that is improved by reducing carbohydrate consumption as well.

In a subsequent meta-analysis of 30 controlled feeding studies in patients with and without T2DM, a moderate-fat diet and a lower-fat diet were compared. The moderate-fat diet resulted in a significantly greater reduction in those with type 2 diabetes than in those without the disease. On a higher-fat, lower-carb diet like the ketogenic diet, the results for people with type 2 diabetes are even better .

However, there is another diet that heralded more than the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet for its health benefits. Could this diet be the perfect balance of carbs and fats? Or is the low-carbohydrate diet always better?

Which is Better? The Low-Carb Diet vs. The Mediterranean Diet

In another randomized controlled trial, the effects of a Mediterranean-style weight-loss diet were compared with low-carbohydrate and low-fat energy-restricted diets.After six months, triglyceride levels were reduced the most in the low-carb diet group. However, after 12 months, the Mediterranean-style diet showed similar reductions in triglycerides as the low carbohydrate diet.

After six months, triglyceride levels were reduced the most in the low-carb diet group. However, after 12 months, the Mediterranean-style diet showed similar reductions in triglycerides as the low carbohydrate diet.

How could this happen? How could two completely different diets provide us with similar triglyceride lowering effects? Let’s dig through the biochemistry to see how this could be the case.

How The Ketogenic Diet Lowers Triglycerides

When carbohydrates are restricted, insulin levels drop, which increases the activity of lipases like triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). These lipases help break down triglycerides for energy usage.

After the lipases do their job, the components of the triglycerides move out of the cells in different directions. Glycerol, the backbone of triglycerides, is taken to the liver for further breakdown or glucose synthesis (via gluconeogenesis ). Free fatty acids, the other components of triglycerides, are carried in the blood to cells that further break them down for energy by a process called beta-oxidation. In the liver, the free fatty acids are converted into ketones , an organic compound that the brain and muscle can use as an alternative fuel source.

Without a lot of carbohydrates in the diet, the cells will start burning more fat and ketones for fuel, and the liver will be focused on forming sugar and ketones for energy rather than triglycerides for storage. As a result, triglyceride levels drop and blood sugar levels to normalize.

While Szasz asserts mental illness does not exist because of its evaluative nature, my weaker claim is that it will never be possible to determine in a purely physical way which of the countless variants of behavior and thinking are disorders, even if we might discover all the physical causes of each and every thought and form of behavior one day. Hence, the irreducibility of mental disorders is not due to the mind-brain problem. But where exactly does the irreducibility come from? In the following section I will give an outline of the main normative aspects that prevent mental disorders from being explained purely physically.

Stating that everything is normative insofar as we have to decide what kind of evidence we want to count as proof for something or what we are willing to accept as an explanation in science would be trivial. It would not be very shocking to claim that, e.g., neuroscientists have to use normative concepts such as the “correct functioning” of certain brain areas. Nearly everything in the world—including psychiatry—is normative in this sense. A much more provocative claim is that psychiatry is guided by social, moral, cultural and other norms. If this is true, and if it is also true that these kinds of norms are relative to time and place, then psychiatry cannot claim to know what a mental disease is “in itself,” where normality ends and mental disorder begins. Again, if the boundary between normality and mental disorder is a social construction such that the question of whether a certain kind of behavior is a disorder can only be judged against the background of this very convention, then the “disorderness” of a condition cannot be found on—and hence not be reduced to—the neuronal level. Psychiatry would have to admit that it serves—to a certain degree at least—not only the needs of patients but those of society as well.

Judgments of psychiatric disorder always need a background of psychiatric order without which no diagnoses could be made. A relatively easy way of finding such a background or “frame of reference” is to take a set of diagnostic criteria and turn them (back) into behavioral imperatives. Leising and colleagues have made visible the normative assumptions inherent in the DSM-IV criteria for personality disorders (PDs) in this way ( Leising et al., 2009 ). To give just one example: On the basis of criterion one of Borderline and criteria seven and eight of Dependent PD they formulated the underlying norm “be able to tolerate real and imagined separation Madeline Stand Up Bootie Womens Online Cheap Price Discount Buy Cheap Sale Many Kinds Of Shop Offer Cheap Price mF7rv
.” If a person is not able to conform to this and other social standards she may be a candidate for a PD. It may be objected that this only refers to some single criteria while in the case of, e.g., Borderline PD seven out of nine criteria have to be met. This is true, of course. But what about the normativity of the other criteria? What do “unstable and intense interpersonal relationships” (DSM-IV-TR, 301.38, 2), or an “unstable self-image” (DSM-IV-TR, 301.38, 3) mean?

5 people found this report helpful

Short of time, I opted for a couple of flat miles in the Tiger Mountain area. These trails are flat and easy and the loop took under an hour. It is only a couple of miles. The woods are quiet and I saw very few people. There are two lakes and quite a bit of swampy country on this loop. The bus seems kind of bizarre sitting out there in the woods.

Section Line Trail, Tradition Lake Loop, Talus Rock Trail

Issaquah Alps -- Tiger Mountain

3 photos

Hiked: Mar 8, 2018

9 people found this report helpful

Ever wonder why the Tradition Lake Plateau is so flat? The geology of this area is so fascinating to me and really adds a richness to the local hiking experience.

The geology of this this area like most of Puget sound was heavily influenced by the last ice age. The big influence on the Puget Sound occurred just 16,000-17,000 years ago. Around that time a massive ice sheet covered all of what is now Canada to a thickness of over 5000 feet!The Puget lobe of this ice fieldfilled the Puget sound basin with a massive glacier that stretched from the base of the Cascades(North Bend) all the way to the Olympic mountains and south to Olympia. At Seattle the ice was 3000 feet thick!

As the ice age was coming to an end, the glacier started retreating butit was a process that took hundreds of years. The retreating ice completely blocked the flow of all the rivers that drained the central Cascades and huge lakes formed in the location of present day Lake Washington, Lake Sammamish, and the area around Carnation and North Bend. These ancient lakes were 200 feet higher than the present lake levels. Spillways formed between the lakes, the most visible one is along the route of I-90 as it ascends from Issaquah. This ancient spillway carried enormous amounts of gravel and debris that settled out where the spillway water entered into ancient lake Sammamish. This ancient delta is what now makes up Tradition Plateau and the lower part of the Issaquah Highlands. The gravel pit at the east edge of Issaquah visible from I-90 takes advantage of the delta gravel that was deposited.

If you are interested in learning more about the very cool geology of this area, check out this excellent 18 min video. I had to watch it a few times to absorb all the info:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ip8nTokv_k0

Tradition Lake Loop, Nook Trail, Talus Rock Trail, West Tiger 3, Bus Trail, Swamp Trail

Issaquah Alps -- Tiger Mountain

4 photos

Hiked: Feb 24, 2018

Beware of: trail conditions

Decided to stretch our legs mid-afternoon despite iffy weather. When we arrived at the High Point Parking lot around 1, it was slightly raining. There were lots of cars but still lots of spots too.

We first headed on the Bus Trail and then took a left on to the Nook Trail. I love all the moss and general solitude on this trail. It is relatively flat to start but definitely gains some elevation eventually. Nothing too steep but enough for me to get warm. The higher we went, the rain changed to snow, and eventually coated the trail. Once we got to the Talus Rocks Trail (took a left onto it), the trail was pretty snow covered. The rocks looked so pretty with a dusting! Once we started to descend to the waterfall section, I decided to through on my spikes just to be extra safe. My husband didn't use his and was fine, though he was cautious. The waterfall is not running to swiftly but enough to look pretty. We continued on and we popped out on the T-3 trail which we took back down to the Bus Trail intersection. It was a little slick in places at the higher elevations.

We then wanted to walk a little longer so we took the Bus Trail (very flat) and then took a right after the bus and continued on the Around the Lake trail (we took the left at that intersection. We didn't really see anyone until we were almost at the intersection with the Swamp Trail (we took a left) which brought us back to the lot.

Overall, the whole loop was about 4 miles and 800' of gain. Nice to get out and enjoy a casual hike in the woods on a snowy afternoon.

Washington Trails Association 705 2nd Ave, Suite 300 Seattle, WA 98104

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